Guarani became a written language relatively recently.
Its modern alphabet is basically a subset of the Latin script (with "J", "K" and "Y" but not "W"), complemented with two diacritics and six digraphs.
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A nasal syllable consists of a nasal vowel, and if the consonant is voiced, it takes its nasal allophone.
If a stressed syllable is nasal, the nasality spreads in both directions until it bumps up against a stressed syllable that is oral.
That is, stress falls on the vowel marked as nasalized, if any, else on the accent-marked syllable, and if neither appears, then on the final syllable. Guarani only allows syllables consisting of a consonant plus a vowel or a vowel alone; syllables ending in a consonant or two or more consonants together are not possible. The voiced consonants have oral allophones (left) before oral vowels, and nasal allophones (right) before nasal vowels. Because of this, Ayala (20) shows that some words have several glottal stops near each other, which consequently undergo a number of different dissimilation techniques.
The oral allophones of the voiced stops are prenasalized. For example, "I drink water" 'a'u'y is pronounced hau'y.
By contrast, the Guarani spoken outside of the missions was characterized by a free, unregulated flow of Hispanicisms; frequently, Spanish words and phrases were simply incorporated into Guarani with minimal phonological adaptation.
It is suspected that the glottal stop was not an original phoneme but that word-internal glottal stops are only fossilized compounds where the second component was a vowel-initial (and therefore glottal stop–initial) root.
Guarani displays an unusual degree of nasal harmony.
A good example of this phenomenon is found in the word "communion".
The Jesuits, using their agglutinative strategy, rendered this word "Tupârahava", a calque based on the word "Tupâ", meaning God.