Note: Citations included within this figure are listed with the supplemental data text.We recognize that a spatial bias introduced to our analyses is due to the small number of studies carried out in South America, Africa, the Middle East, and the polar latitudes as well as the fact that the number of samples from each study varied in size.Because soils are typically well-stirred by physical and biological processes, shallow, human-induced soil erosion does not typically affect cosmogenic estimates of basin-scale erosion rates.
Thus, measuring the rate and spatial distribution of erosion on millennial time scales is fundamental to understanding how landscapes evolve through time and for placing human environmental impacts in context (Hooke, 1994, 2000).
RSES also has the only dedicated HEPA-filtered clean lab for the preparation of targets for the cosmogenic nuclide chlorine-36 in Australia.
The laboratory doubles as a dark room for the preparation of silver salts.
Until recently, no one method of measuring geologic erosion rates directly was globally applicable.
The development of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) allowed rapid, high-precision, low-detection limit measurement of in situ–produced cosmogenic radionuclides (Elmore and Phillips, 1987), the concentration of which reflects near-surface residence time and thus the pace of surface processes (Bierman and Nichols, 2004).
The most common approach equated sediment yield with erosion rate (Dole and Stabler, 1909; Judson, 1968).